A History of Daoism and the Yao People of South China

A History Of Daoism And The Yao People Of South China English Edition
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bascompcomrighma.ga/george-crabbe-everyman-poetry-everymans-poetry.php Even horse-riders should dismount when they encounter an older person. When eating, the best food should be closest to the most senior person. When eating together, younger people should give up their seats and serve food to older people.

The folk song of Yao people in southwestern Chinese city Hezhou

Yao men almost always marry Yao women. Yao people meet their future wives or husbands during festivals. A man and a woman who are courting often exchange keepsakes. These symbolize love and freedom. Parents do not intervene when it comes to matchmaking. Some villages may require matchmakers to facilitate a meeting of the prospective couple, before a decision is made to marry. Yao houses are similar to Zhuang and Miao houses. Yao people normally use logs and bamboo to build their traditional houses. Others live in houses made with mud walls and tiled roofs. They are built on pilings, and they sit above the ground.

Most Yao houses have two stories and three or five rooms.

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People cannot kill pigs on the Day of Pig and chickens on the Day of Chicken; as well as, no selling of ox or horses on the Day of Ox and Horses. During his studies, he always enjoyed using English-Thai and English-Chinese dictionaries to improve his English, and is grateful for these wonderful dictionaries, but found it difficult to understand everything because both are second languages to him. Another version maintains that the Yao primogenitor was the sage king Pangu After the first failure, the local governor asked the emperor to dispatch more and more government troops. Robson James. Yao People of South China [ tribe in Hu-nan ]. Some would argue that they are primus inter pares , "first amongst equals", in the degree of their cultural sophistication, business acumen, and overall confidence in dealing with settled, lowland societies.

The first story is where they keep their farming tools and raise livestock in rooms that make by adding partitions among the pilings the support the house. The family lives in the upper story. Yao people are fond of making annexes and lofts for their homes. This makes the structure of the homes even more complicated. Although Yao people celebrate Han festivals, they also have their own. Panwang is perhaps the biggest event for Yao people. It only happens, however, every three or five years, on the 16th day of the 10th lunar month around November.

Some groups only celebrate it once every twelve years. The actual date depends on a lot of factors including the time of the harvest and the health of villagers and livestock. During the festival day, Yao people honor their ancestors. They give thanks to them for hearing their wishes and making the wishes come true. The folk master leads the ceremony. He sings and dances to the god called Panwang. Villagers perform the long-drum dance. This calls for Panwang to protect them. The Danu Festival usually happens on the 29th day of the 5th lunar month late June or early July.

People clean their houses and surroundings and worship the Taoist ancestor god Zuniang. They sacrifice rice cakes, rice wine, sheep and chickens. Wooden buildings are the most eye-catching. Generally they contain three stories; the first floor is for livestock, second for humans, and third for storage. Not a single nail is used in the wooden building, yet it is strong and sturdy. It is very comfortable, with ample sunlight and air.

The Yao people live on corn, rice and sweet potato, and their daily meals include taro, millet and wheat. They enjoy vegetables such as watermelon, white gourd, pumpkin and tomato. They also enjoy bamboo shoots and mushrooms.

Yao people love making tofu by themselves, and the tofu made by the Yao people in Hunan is famous. It is tender and delicious, and a must for holidays and other occasions. Yao people are fond of drinking as well. In some places, Yao men drink with bowls, and drink all day long on holidays. They prefer sweet wine, and they often invite guests over for a cup. Yao women drink a kind of sweet wine after they give birth to babies. It is nutritious and contributes to health as it has ingredients such as ginger, red sugar and egg.

In the morning, they fry tea leaves with salt and edible oil, and then boil it. They treat guests to fragrant tea. The Yao costumes show a variety of patterns, and reflect great skill. They vary from place to place, having more than one hundred different styles. Their distinctive feature is embroidery in five colors. Silver hairpin, silver flower, silver bead and crescent silver band are decorated with colorful ribbons to make it stand out.

The headwear keeps one from knowing whether the woman wearing it is young or old, married or unmarried. Yao women wear flowery pants or pleated skirts decorated with embroidered sash or apron, or even puttee. The Yao costume is usually made in blue cloth, dotted with decorations in red, yellow, green, white or purple.

Yao Ethnic Minority

The Yao have long history. Some of them belong to the Zhuang-Dong language branch and Dong-Shui branch. Significant differences exist among different dialects and some of them even cannot communicate. Farming is the main occupation of the Yao people. They mainly grow on rice and corn. Sticky rice is their staple food. Yao houses are usually made of wood or bamboo. Some of them are also built with bricks and earth, with distinctive roofs. Often they are built on high mountains. Yao religious life has been heavily influenced by Taoism. They believe in Taoism and the ancient religions.

Yao people have a variety of cultural and artistic activities, including their own music, dances and handicrafts. Different Yao groups have different customs and identify themselves as such by wearing different clothing. There are approximately five million Yao living in various regions of southern Asia today.

A census counted 2. Another 40, or so live in Thailand. Yao population in China: 0. Paris, Sources on Individual Ethnic Minorities in China: click the ethnic group you want Ethnic China very good site with good academic articles ethnic-china. There are a number of Yao branches.

Some studies detail more than 30 different ones. The Big cultural and linguistic differences between Yao branches can be quite large. But, in contrast to some of the other big minorities of China, such as the Yi or the Miao, whose identity is continually debated inside and outside the minority, nobody seems to deny the existence of the Yao as a kind of homogeneous minority. The Yao language is divided into four main dialects: 1 Mian: the main dialect of the Yao, spoken by more than , people in south China and Southeast Asia; 2 Jinmen, spoken by , people, who live mainly in Yunnan and Guangxi provinces, and Vietnam, Laos and Thailand; 3 Biaomin, spoken in northern Guangxi province; and 4 Yaomin, with 50, speakers, who inhabit Liannan Yao Autonomous district in Guangdong province.

Linguistic analysis of these four dialects provides clues to origin, history and migrations of the Yao people, including that they originated more than 2, years ago. Studies of the Yao in Dayaoshan Big mountain of the Yao , in Guangxi province, where the group has lived in compact communities for a long time, shows surprising diversity.

In the 2, square kilometers of Dayaoshan, the Yao call themselves five different names: 1 Chashan Yao or Lajia. All wear different traditional dresses. These five ethnic groups speak three different languages: 1 Mian, 2 Bunu and 3 Lajia. Chasan Yao, Hualan Yao and Ao Yao live up in the mountain and have traditionally been settled farmers. Pan Yao and Shanzi Yao practiced slash and burn agriculture until recently, moving their villages every several years.

On these differences Fei Xiaotong wrote: "Considering the fact of their different languages these five Yao groups with different self-denominations probably had different origins. In other words they are probably not of the same ethnic stock. The Han people therefore referred to them all indiscriminately as Yao and this is how the present Yao community into existence despite the fact they speak different languages, wear different costumes and have different customs and habits.

Some have argued that this situation came into existence so the Yao could avoid paying Chinese taxes and avert providing corvee service. Fei Xiaotong, one of the first anthropologists to study the Yao in detail, wrote: "The Yaos characteristically lived in small, widely-scattered communities. The Yaos of Guangxi were spread over 60 or more counties, their numbers in each county varying from a hundred thousand or more to only a few thousand or a few hundred.

Their villages were usually separated by several mountains. Even in the Dayao Mountains, walking from one village to another not infrequently took me a whole day when I first visited the region. These differences formed the basis of the various names by which they were known. Usually Mien is synonym of Yao and the Mien language means the Yao language. But there are no Mien communities in Guizhou. Most of the Yao of Southeast Asia are also Mien. Their population was is , in in China. In Southeast Asia there are about , of them. They have some myths differences from other Yao, such as the cult to Miluotou as the mother goddess.

In their population was about , In their population was about 95, The total population of the Naogelao is 52, That of the Dounu, considered as a branch of them, is about 30, The Baheng numbered 33, in In their population was about 27, In their population was about 26, Their language and culture has attracted the attention of many ethnologists. There are several books about them. In their population was about In their population was about 16, In their population was about 12, In their population was about 9, In their population was about 7, In their population was about 6, In their population was about 5, In their population was about 3, In their population was about 2, The name "Yao" was officially adopted after the founding of the People's Republic of China in Iu Mien is a name used to describe both the largest Yao branch or all yao.

It was applied to peoples the Han Chinese encountered but were unable to assimilate when they expanded southward over last years or so. They later moved southward to such areas as Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou and Yunan and thus the inhabiting feature of "small communities scatter across big areas" came into being. As a result, their life styles, cultural activities and even names began to diverge.

These names provide some hints in conducting research concerning the Yao's historical and cultural features. Yao in Chinese characters The Yao consider China their homeland. They were described in Chinese historical records in B. According to legend the Yao were founded by a dog who saved the life of the daughter of a Chinese emperor and thus was rewarded with her hand in marriage.

The Yao have fair skin and Mongolian features, and it is believed they have the same ancestors as the Chinese.

Yao Taoism

Because of their Chinese origins, the Yao consider themselves to be culturally superior to other hill tribes. The name "Yao" began to be used in the 8th century, to denominate a group peoples who were relatively accommodating to Han Chinese invaders and rewarded with the right to not pay corvee forces, unpaid labor. According to some scholars "Mo Yao" means "Exempted from corvee". According to the Book of the Later Han Dynasty , the ancestors of the Yaos "liked five-colored clothes.

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Historically, the Yao people had close relations with the Miao ethnic group, both of whom are thought to have originated from the Wuling People in Qin and Han Dynasties. Around the Sui Dynasty A. Over time the Yao migrated southward and reached Vietnam perhaps by the 11th century.

Yao relations with China have been marked by conflict. Between and approximately 20, Yao escaped the turmoil in southern China, particularly during World War II, by emigrating to Thailand. Some scholars believe the Yao belong to a group of peoples called the Shan Yue, who inhabited a mountainous area south of the Yangtze river in present-day Zhejiang Province before the unification of China for Qinshihuang emperor in B.

When China was unified under Emperor Qinshihuang in B. As a result, a lot of Han people from the central parts of China were sent to today's Changsha and Wuling regions, where the ancestors of the Yao lived. These Han people brought advanced technologies to the region, which promoted development. At the end of the Han dynasty in the A. Political instability in the north caused a large migration of Chinese people to the Yangtze River basin.

This caused the people living in this area to move to the relatively wild and uncharted south, where various tribal peoples were already living. This started a process of colonization of indigenous lands by the Han Chinese that continues to this day. Some indigenous peoples mixed with the recently-arrived Chinese, assimilating into the Han Chinese masses.

Others, such as the Yao, maintained their independence. However, they were forced to abandon their most fertile lands, and migrate further south and into the mountains to agriculturally less productive areas. It has been proposed that different branches of the Yao began differentiate themselves in these years: and separated from another they developed the distinctions that characterizes them today.

The Yao were described as the Moyao in Chinese sources historical records. The Yao consider Panhu— a mythical figure at the center of their most important myths— to be their ancestor and the founder of the Yao people.

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According to legend Panhu was a dragon-dog who defeated the great enemy King Gao. After performing several heroic feats he is rewarded with the hand of the younger daughter of King Ping. After they were married they bore six boys and six girls, whose intermarriage gave birth the Yao people. Many scholars think that Panhu was a real person— a mythified local hero. Others think he lived later, maybe in the first years of the A. Panhu, also called Panwang and Pangu, was a dragon-like dog and a totem to the Yao people.